Mental health care and treatment

In the context of national efforts to develop and implement mental health policies, it is important to meet the needs of individuals with certain mental disorders, as well as to protect and promote the mental well-being of citizens.
Knowledge of how to handle the growing burden of mental disorders has improved significantly over the past decade. There is growing evidence showing both the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of key interventions for priority mental disorders in countries with different levels of economic development. Examples of cost-effective, feasible, and accessible interventions include:

  • treatment of depression with psychological treatment and, for moderate to severe cases, antidepressant medicines;
  • treatment of psychosis with antipsychotic medicines and psychosocial support;
  • taxation of alcoholic beverages and restriction of their availability and marketing.
  • There are also many effective interventions to prevent suicide, prevent and treat mental disorders in children, prevent and treat dementia, and treat substance use disorders. The Mental Health Gap Program (MhGAP) has developed evidence-based recommendations to help non-professionals better identify and treat priority mental health conditions.

Common mental health disorders
The most common types of mental illness are as follows:

  • anxiety disorders
  • mood disorders
  • schizophrenia disorders

Anxiety disorders

  • According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, anxiety disorders are the most common type of mental illness.
  • People with these conditions have severe fear or anxiety, which relates to certain objects or situations. Most people with an anxiety disorder will try to avoid exposure to whatever triggers their anxiety.
  • Examples of anxiety disorders include:

   Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

  • The American Psychiatric Association defines GAD as a disproportionate worry that disrupts everyday living.
  • People might also experience physical symptoms, including
  • restlessness
  • fatigue
  • tense muscles
  • interrupted sleep
  • A bout of anxiety symptoms does not necessarily need a specific trigger in people with GAD.

They may experience excessive anxiety on encountering everyday situations that do not present a direct danger, such as chores or keeping appointments. A person with GAD may sometimes feel anxiety with no trigger at all.